While in development, Spektrum engineers sought to create a radio system that provided the end user with the same locked-in feel as a crystal-based radio while eliminating interference and glitching. Spektrum engineers sought to improve both the modeling experience and safety all at the same time. Just a few years ago, the thought of eliminating crystals and frequency control was not even on the horizon. Now, thanks to Spektrum Technology, this is not only a possibility, its a reality.
There are two main broadcast methods that spread spectrum manufacturers can utilize. One format is called Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS). With an FHSS system, the transmitter transmits a narrow band signal and rapidly jumps from one frequency to the next, spending a few milliseconds on each frequency. Originally, Spektrum engineers started their development with FHSS-based systems because they were relatively easy and inexpensive to develop. However, they soon discovered that FHSS had several limitations that would prevent it from being the optimal solution for RC. While more difficult and costly to develop, our engineers began experimenting with Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and optimized the modulation scheme to overcome critical response and re-link issues. DSSS systems transmit on a single selected frequency but on a very wide band. Only a small portion of that band is used for specially encoded information. In addition, DSSS offers an increase of processing gain for significant improvements in range. With years of development and testing, the DSSS modulation scheme was optimized for RC car and airplane use, and Spektrum´s DSM 2.4GHz Spread Spectrum Technology was born. DSSS provided engineers and hobbyists with the safety, security, and locked-in feeling that is necessary to maintain total and complete control in any vehicle or aircraft.
Spektrum Radio Systems are designed not only for ease of use and strength of signal, but also consistent, reliable control that you can count on. And consistency can make all the difference, particularly in competition. Thats why Spektrums DSMX surface systems are engineered to have the most consistent latency and lowest response variance of any radio system. Most radio systems establish a limit for the maximum response time or latency between your control input and the reaction of the vehicle. And while these limits ensure that you will be in control of your vehicle, they allow for the response time to vary across a broad range. This means that while taking a corner, your control input may have a short delay, causing a sharp (possibly sharper than expected) turn, or the delay may be longer, causing you to shoot too high into a turn and lose valuable lap time. Spektrum systems not only offer faster response time, meaning an immediate reaction to your input, but also have the most consistently narrow latency range. That narrow variance in the latency of the system ensures that your input will happen exactly when you expect it to, which keeps you in control and lets you hit your mark every time.
The resolution of a radio system can be one of the most over-hyped and misunderstood terms out there. Resolution refers to the number of steps your radio has in its range of motion. A higher resolution means that your radio has more steps in its range of motion. One would naturally think that the higher number would be better, but there comes a point where the numbers lose relevance. Yes, a higher resolution number is better, but there comes a point where the resolution of a radio surpasses the resolution of the servos or ESC, making incredibly high resolution claims irrelevant. In other words, resolution is only one element in a series of events that have to happen; the system will only ever be as fast as its weakest link.
Spektrum Pro Series modules and receivers offer performance enthusiasts the speed, durability, and precision that is necessary to win at all levels. A special conformal coating, called ReliaKote, has been designed for the receivers, along with all-new cases. These updates make Spektrum Pro Series receivers both water and fuel resistant. Another update that debuted in the Pro Series receivers and that since has been incorporated into the Original Series receivers is updated firmware that eliminates the possibility of an Electro-Static Discharge (ESD), sending the receiver into Fail-Safe mode when racing on carpet. Finally, for those looking for the smallest receiver possible, a new SR3500 Micro Receiver has been developed. Weighing in at a scant 6.5 grams and measuring just 1.06 x .78 x .48 inches, the SR3500 is perfect combination of performance and reliability in a miniscule package. All the SR3500 Micro Receiver's features are identical to the Spektrum Pro series receivers, minus telemetry capability.
Racers who equip their vehicles with Spektrum equipment can take advantage of real-time telemetry for the ultimate competitive edge. With Spektrum Telemetry Modules, racers can keep track of RPM, voltage, signal strength, and temperature all from the convenience of the hand-held unit. The addition of the Telemetry modules to any racecar will make testing even more valuable and provide more relevant data. For nitro racers, your pit man can now make the appropriate carburetor changes on the fly thanks to knowing exactly what the running temperature of the head is.
|Analog||A voltage method that is used to represent data.|
|Binding Process||Programming a receiver to recognize the GUID code of only one specific transmitter or transmitter module.|
|Channel||Refers to the number of devices that you can plug into a receiver and control; also references the frequency a transmitter broadcasts on.|
|Collision Avoidance||A protocol which eliminates the possibility of more than one Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum system from transmitting on the same frequency.|
|Conformal Coating||A special treatment applied to the PC Board of Spektrum Pro Series receivers to aid in making them water proof and fuel resistant.|
|Crystal||In tradition radios, the crystal is what determines what frequency a radio broadcasts on.|
|Digital||A numerical method that is used to represent data.|
|Dipole||A twin antenna setup that makes DuaLink possible.|
|DSM||Digital Spectrum Modulation; DSM is the 2.4GHz technology that makes Spektrum possible.|
|DSSS||Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum. DSSS broadcasts on the 2.4GHz frequency band and generates a wide signal on a single frequency.|
|ESD||Electro-Static Discharge. These are extremely high voltages that can build up on various surfaces.|
|Fading||The term used to describe data that does not reach the receiver. DuaLink minimizes this possibility.|
|Failsafe||A safety feature designed into Spektrum receivers that drives the servo positions to a preset location in the event that signal is lost.|
|FHSS||Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum. These systems usually transmit a narrow band signal and rapidly jump through a fixed set of frequencies, spending a few milliseconds on each frequency.|
|Frame Loss||The simultaneous loss of information to both antennas in the aircraft system.|
|Frame Rate||The time interval at which the servo data is updated on the receiver.|
|Frequency||The specific channel or RF spectrum that a radio broadcasts on. In a traditional RC radio, the transmission crystal resonates when voltage is applied; the rate of this resonation determines the frequency that is broadcast on.|
|GHz||Gigahertz. One hertz represents one cycle per second, and a gigahertz is 1,000,000,000 hertz.|
|GUID||Globally Unique Identification Code. Each individual module or radio is factory programmed with its own unique serial code. In the binding process, the receiver is programmed to only recognize the GUID code of one specific radio or module.|
|ISM||This is another name for the 2.4GHz frequency band. ISM was originally intended for Industrial, Scientific, and Medical use.|
|Latency||The time it takes for a servo or ESC to react to an input made on a radio.|
|MHz||Megahertz. One hertz represents one cycle per second, and a megahertz is 1,000,000 hertz.|
|Module||A device that plugs into the back of many radios that determines the broadcast frequency and band.|
|Monopole||An antenna with a single wire.|
|Packets||A set or group of data that is sent from a transmitter to a receiver in a digital radio system.|
|PCM/PPM||Pulse-code modulation and pulse-position modulation. PCM is a method of sampling an analog signal to convert it to a digital one. PPM systems use pulses to transmit specific transmitter inputs. Each pulse represents a position or position change of the controls.|
|Pro Series||The second generation of Spektrum surface modules and receivers. With the Pro Series, the receivers feature a conformal coating, latency has been reduced, and new firmware has been developed to prevent ESD issues.|
|Receiver||A device mounted into a car or aircraft that receives and decodes a signal sent by a transmitter. Servos, ESC, and other devices are plugged into the receiver.|
|Resolution||Refers to the incremental step size of the data transmitted to the receiver.|
|Servo||An electronic device used to actuate steering bellcranks, throttle and brake linkages, or control surface.|